Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Emergentism: Making the Case for the Philosophical and the Aesthetic

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Department of Middle and Secondary Education, Georgia State University.

Abstract

To analyze the relationship between teachers’ freedom and their required pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), I consider emergent curriculum as an extreme end of curricula with a lot of freedom and autonomy for teachers as opposed to a conventional prescribed curriculum in which teachers have less autonomy. In examining teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge from predetermined curriculum toward emergent curriculum, I argue that required PCK is evolving. At the extreme level of teachers’ freedom, some substantially new aspects of PCK are needed. One of the most relevant aspects of pedagogical content knowledge for the emergent curriculum curricular knowledge. In an emergent curriculum, the teacher acts as a curriculum developer as well, because the curriculum is not determined in advance. Curricular knowledge requires teachers to be experts in fields of learning that are not necessary for teachers in other kinds of curriculum. In addition to substantive PCK, teachers of emergent curriculum have to be both philosophers and artists to be qualified enough to make decisions about curricular issues.

Keywords


Aoki, T. T. (2005). Teaching as In-dwelling Between Two Curriculum Worlds (1986/1991). In W. F. Pinar, R. L. Irwin, W. F. Pinar & R. L. Irwin (Eds.), Curriculum in a new key: The collected works of Ted T. Aoki. (pp. 159-165). Mahwah, NJ USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Bennett, R. M. (2002). Teacher participation in curriculum development a history of the idea and practice, 1890-1940.
Bobbitt, J. F. (1918). The curriculum. Cambridge, MA USA: Houghton Mifflin.
Bristow, W. H. (1948). Curriculum: Foundations.. Review of Educational Research, 18(3), 221-230.
CERI, C. f. E. R. a. I. (1979). School-based curriculum development. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Curtis, D. (2008). Learning together with young children : a curriculum framework for reflective teachers (1st ed. ed.). St. Paul, MN, USA: Redleaf Press.
Dewey, J. (1903). Democracy and education. Elementary School Teacher, 4(4), 193-204.
Edwards, C. P. (1993). The hundred languages of children : the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. Norwood, NJ, USA: Ablex Pub. Corp.
Eisner, E. W. (2002). The educational imagination : on the design and evaluation of school programs (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gess-Newsome, J. (1999). Examining pedagogical content knowledge : the construct and its implications for science education. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Gess-Newsome, J. (2002). Pedagogical Content Knowledge: An Introduction and Orientation Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. Lederman (Eds.), (Vol. 6, pp. 3-17). Netherlands: Springer.
Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2005). Foundations of early childhood education : teaching children in a diverse society (3rd ed. ed.). Boston, MA, USA: McGraw-Hill.
Greene, M. (1977). The Artistic-Aesthetic and Curriculum: Curriculum Inquiry. Hofstein, A., Carmeli, M., & Shore, R. (2004). The Professional Development of High School Chemistry Coordinators. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15(1), 3-24.
Hunkins, F. P., & Hammill, P. A. (1994). Beyond Tyler and Taba: Reconceptualizing the Curriculum Process. Peabody Journal of Education, 69(3), 4-18.
Jones, E., & Nimmo, J. (1994). Emergent curriculum. Washington, DC, USA: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Jones, E., Evans, K., & Rencken, K. S. (2001). The lively kindergarten : emergent curriculum in action. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Lampert, M. (1985). How Do Teachers Manage to Teach? Perspectives on Problems in Practice. . Harvard Educational Review, 55(2), 178-194.
Machado, J. M. (2003). Early childhood experiences in language arts : emerging literacy / Jeanne M. Machado: Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2003.7th ed.
Marsh, C. J. (1990). Reconceptualizing school-based curriculum development. London, UK: Falmer Press.
May, W. T. (1993). Teaching as a work of art in the medium of curriculum. [Article]. Theory Into Practice, 32(4), 210.
Parks, D. J. (2011). Lest We Forget Our Past: A Leader in Curriculum Development--Ralph Winfred Tyler. Educational Forum, 75(1), 80-86.
Pinar, W. (1995). Understanding curriculum : an introduction to the study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses / William F. Pinar ... [et al.] New York, NY, USA : Peter Lang.
Pinar, W. (2004). What is curriculum theory? Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Schwab, J. J. (1971). The Practical: Arts of Eclectic (pp. 493).
Shulman, L. S. (1984). The Practical and the Eclectic: A Deliberation on Teaching and Educational Research. Curriculum Inquiry, 14(2), 183-200. 
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4.
Shulman, L. S. (1998). Teaching and teacher education among the professions. Washington, D.C., USA: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.
Shulman, L. S. (2004). The wisdom of practice : essays on teaching, learning, and learning to teach (1st ed. ed.). San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
Skilbeck, M. (1984). School-based curriculum development. London, UK: Harper & Row.
Stacey, S. (2011). The unscripted classroom : emergent curriculum in action (1st ed. ed.). St. Paul, MN, USA: Redleaf Press.
Steve, C., & Anthony, C. (2008). Activity frames and complexity thinking: Honoring both public and personal agendas in an emergent curriculum. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1003-1014.
Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N. (1995). Curriculum development : theory into practice / Daniel Tanner, Laurel Tanner: New York, NY, USA :Maxwell Macmillan International.
Wien, C. A. (2008). Emergent curriculum in the primary classroom : interpreting the Reggio Emilia approach in schools / Carol Anne Wien, editor: New York : Teachers College Press ; Washington, DC, USA : National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Xu, Y., & Wong, H. (2011). School-Based Curriculum Development in China: Policy Analysis, Theoretical Controversy, and Practical Exploration. Chinese Education and Society, 44(4), 44-63.
Yu-le, Z. (2004). Some thoughts on emergent curriculum. Paper presented at the Integrated Education and Educational Reform, Santa Cruz, CA.